Pupils should be taught to:
• explain that unsupported objects fall towards the Earth because of the force of gravity acting between the Earth and the falling object;
• identify the effects of air resistance, water resistance and friction, that act between moving surfaces;
• recognise that some mechanisms, including levers, pulleys and gears, allow a smaller force to have a greater effect.
Pupils learn that a lever is a simple machine that makes a number of everyday tasks much easier to complete. They learn that levers are used to move things and that there are a wide range and variety of levers.View Resource
A PowerPoint presentation used to introduce pupils to Forces and how these forces make things move. The PowerPoint can be used at the beginning of the topic or during it to stimulate scientific discussions, ideas and theories.View Resource
A PowerPoint presentation used to introduce pupils to Forces and Friction. The PowerPoint can be used at the beginning of the topic or during it to stimulate scientific discussions, ideas and theories.View Resource
Pupils learn about the forces of gravity and upthrust. They learn that gravity is the force that pulls thing to earth and upthrust is a force that resists this. They learn that water can produce upthrust and when the force of gravity and the upthrust are equal objects on water can float.View Resource
Pupils investigate the forces of push and pull and the effects on elastic bands bands of pulling and stretching them. They predict what will happen to the distance travelled by elastic bands the more they are pulled and stretched before release. Pupils investigate their predictions, record and graph their results and draw conclusions.
Pupils answer a range of questions to demonstrate their knowledge of forces. This can be done as an initial assessment with the pupils working in pairs or small groups and the sharing their answers.View Resource
Pupils design their own investigate to explore the force known as upthrust which is produced by water.
Pupils investigate the upthrust force produced by water by using a force metre to measure the gravitational force produce by a number of items when weighed both in and out of water. The record and graph their results before drawing conclusions.
Pupils learn how to use a forcemeter and investigate the forces being produced by a range of objects being pulled back down to earth by gravity. They identify that the heavier the object the greater the reading on the forcemeter.
Pupils learn that we can measure pull forces in Newtons (N) using a newton forcemeter. They learn that most objects are pulled to the Earth by the force known as gravity. They learn how to use a newton force meter and measure the newton forces produced by a range of objects.
Pupils learn that gravity is the force that pulls down and holds things to the Earth’s surface, preventing them from floating off into the atmosphere. They learn how to use a forcemeter to measure the force exerted on a range of objects by gravity and that this force is measured in newtons.
Pupils solve a real problem by investigating a range of materials to see which one is the most efficient at reducing friction and therefore increasing sliding.
Pupils solve a problem by designing and carrying out an investigation to find out which pair of shoes would produce the most grip, and therefore friction, for sailors when working on the decks of busy ships.
Pupils learn that forces that move things do so by either pushing or pulling. They learn that friction is a force that opposes, slows and stops things from moving.
Pupils identify where friction is occurring in a number of photographs. They say whether the moving objects have been designed to create high or low friction and why.
Pupils learn about the importance of friction to grip. They learn that some things are designed to increase friction and therefore grip. They plan and carryout an investigation to see which shoes produce the most grip.
Pupils learn that friction produces grip on moving objects and reduces slipping. They learn that gravity is the force that pulls everything back down to Earth.
Pupils learn about the forces that act on moving objects. They learn that everything moves as a result of push and pull forces. They learn about the forces of gravity and friction and the effect these have on moving objects.
Pupils learn about the range of forces that act upon moving objects.
Pupils learn that the earth is surrounded by gases and some of these gases form the air that we breathe. They learn that the air produces a resistant force against objects that move through it and that this force is called air resistance. Pupils investigate the effects of air resistance on A4 pieces of paper.
Pupils learn that when designing and making things, people often get good ideas from watching nature. Fast animals have streamlined bodies so that they are more efficient at cutting through the air and reducing air resistance. Designers have copied this and streamline their inventions and products so that they too can cut through the air more efficiently. Pupils look at a range of animals and inventions and place them in order according to their streamlining and ability to reduce air resistance.View Resource
Pupils learn about how parachutes use air resistance to help slow falling objects down. They have to design a parachute that will help to land an egg on the ground, from approximately ten feet, without it breaking.
Pupils learn about air resistance and the effect this can have on moving and falling objects. Pupils investigate the effects of air resistance on falling objects. They also investigate the surface area of a parachutes to see if it effects the rate at which an object falls.
Pupils learn that the earth is surrounded by a mixture of gases and that two of these gases are called oxygen and carbon dioxide. They learn that these two gases are the main gases that make up the air that we breath. Pupils learn that people and objects have to move through the air when travelling and that air resistance can slow things down. Pupils make a simple parachute to investigate the effects on falling objects of air resistance.